Along with the economic reasons and political challenges facing medieval Europe, the emergence and prosperity of knightly orders largely contributed to the way of thinking of the medieval European, who idealized the monastic way of life combined with the power and honor of chivalry. One of the strongest orders of medieval Europe was founded in 1198 in Palestine Teutonic order. There are several secrets to why the Teutons become the embodiment of power and wealth.
Teutonic Order. Causes of power
The first is the secret of the control system. The Teutons had a very complex system of government with the separation of powers. Never has decision-making on any meaningful issue been concentrated in the hands of one. Decisions were made only collectively. This system of organization of power also protected from unauthorized disposal of the Treasury. The Teutonic order was headed by a grandmaster (Grand master). He was elected for life by representatives from each territory that was part of the Order. The grandmaster’s power was limited to the General Chapter – GC) – a collegial governing body and a Council consisting of five officials-also a collegial body, but, unlike the GC, which met at congresses periodically, the Council acted on a permanent basis. The Council consisted of the Grand Comtur, acting as Deputy Grand master( Grand Master), the Grand Marshal, who was in charge of military Affairs, the Great Hospitaller (behind him were the infirmaries), the Great sacristan (economic Affairs), the Grand Treasurer (Finance). Similar Councils were organized on the ground. Spiritual and secular brothers were in the Teutonic order. Secular brothers were divided into knights, they wore white cloaks, which had a black cross (served as a prototype for men’s hoodies Red Lion Teuton-2) – they had the right to hold high positions in the order, As well as just brothers who wore gray cloaks and held low positions, but provided the Order with indispensable services, as they conducted routine economic and administrative Affairs, to which the knights were often incapable.
The second secret of the power of the Teutons – will and iron discipline. The Teutons managed very well not only the annexed territories, but also themselves. The brothers took three vows: chastity, poverty, obedience. Every minute of Teuton’s life had a meaning, was subordinated to any purpose. The life of the brothers was regulated by the Charter of the Order, which unquestioningly obeyed.
The third reason power of the order of The – knowledge, which were used Teutons on a hundred percent.Knights were open and receptive to everything new, any progress, so very quickly absorbed and put into practice the experience of other peoples. Historians note this fact: the first mention of the gun refers to 1324. After some 4 years after that, the Teutons are actively using the guns for his weapons. And cast guns of enormous size, which had no analogues in medieval Europe. The knights were brought from the Crusades the knowledge of not only military Affairs, but also of agriculture. So, the Teutons were the first in Europe to grow pepper and saffron.
The fourth secret – the strongest army, built on iron discipline and first-class training of soldiers, as well as the Navy. The strength of the Teutonic army largely contributed to their progressive qualities mentioned above-openness to innovation. So the Order closely followed all the innovations in the military field and immediately applied them. So, in addition to guns, they borrowed a bow. Were perfectly are equipped with the easy and heavy cavalry, artillery. The order also had a fleet in the Baltic sea and river fleets. Thanks to the strongest army and skillful diplomacy, the Teutons pursued a fairly aggressive foreign policy, conquering more and more new territories. So, helping war Poland vs Prussians, Teutons received in an award conquered have Prussians land. Part of the territories conquered by the Teutons were assigned to them by the Pope – this is the merit of Teutonic diplomacy.
The fifth reason for power is the skillful management of conquered territories. No heavy taxes, duties Order in the conquered territories did not establish. Moreover, the knights willingly and beneficial to local residents Bono gave a lease of the land. In cities flourished the craft. Foreign policy of the knights opened new markets, in particular, and the people of the conquered territories, which contributed to the prosperity of trade. The invincible army of Teutons well protected water and land borders. Local residents who did not behave aggressively towards the Teutons, could occupy good positions in the local government. In force all this the local population until a certain moment well loyal and friendly has applied to power knights.
The sixth cause of power of the Order and at the same time the result of previous causes is a huge wealth of the Teutonic order. The Teutonic Treasury was the richest in Europe. Thanks to the internal policy of the Teutons conquered Prussia prospered, the people grew rich, new villages and cities, civilized infrastructure. In 1237, the Teutonic order merged With the order of the sword, conquered the Baltic States, and in 1283 the Teutons finally conquered Prussia, thus increasing their wealth. An important factor in increasing the wealth of the Teutons was their ability to resist the attempt of tax oppression on the part of the Pope. While the Roman Church allowed itself to impose additional taxes on many European territories, the Teutons never allowed themselves to do so.
The period of decline
Having reached the highest point of its power, in the 15th century the Teutonic Order suffers a rapid decline. In domestic and foreign historiography, The Order is called a Corporation. It is in the corporate nature of the Order and lie the reasons for its decline. Bringing prosperity and civilization to the conquered territories , the Teutons, as managers, could not become “their” for the local population, forever remaining newcomers, “strangers”.
Medieval Europeans-the subjects of the king loved his ruler, rejoiced in his joys, experienced failures with his king. If the king was captured, the people demanded the return of the king. If there were riots, they were directed against the nobility, not against the king. Sometimes the king and the people had a common enemy – the nobility. Before king all were equally subordinates (vassals) – and noble and peasant. Thus, the king was the personification of the nation, national unity, “the first of the French”, “the first of the English”, etc. the People were infinitely loyal to their king. By the 15th century, the Prussian nation was formed, which has a national identity and national identity. The head of the T. of the Order of the “the first from.” be not was able, except just other things and on reason a different national belonging, so people conquered territories devotion Order not experienced. In addition, members of the Order were not allowed to local nobility and knights. The new members were still drawn from among the German knights, and this could not fail to give the local population the feeling that they were ruled by strangers. The consequence of this feeling is growing dissatisfaction with the authorities.
However, the Order continues to close access to its members for the local nobility. The second cause of decline becomes, ironically, wealth of the Order of the. Knights, bathed in luxury, it becomes impossible to profess a vow of celibacy, poverty, obedience, which is why they become frequent objects of ridicule from their detractors. The third reason for the decline can be called the economic reason. Local burghers wanted more and more economic freedom and privileges. Nevertheless, the Teutons monopolized part of the economy. For example, the burghers were not satisfied with the monopoly of the Teutons on the grain trade. The fourth reason for the decline of the Order is that the knight just became unnecessary. Passed the age of dangers of continuous wars, raids of neighboring tribes. People no longer needed the constant military protection that knights represented. In the 15th century Europe was on the threshold of the Church reformation. People’s faith in the sanctity of the Church institution is gradually fading, and the order of chivalry is rightly associated with the Church. Thus, the spirit of the era was the fifth cause of the decline of the Teutonic Order. In addition, on July 15, 1410, the Order was defeated by the Polish-Lithuanian army by Grunwald, thereby undermining faith in its invincibility. After the defeat in the Thirteen years ‘ war (1453-1466gg) Teutonic order submitted to Poland. The last Grand master of the Order was Albrecht of Brandenburg.
A trace left in history
The Teutons played a huge role in the development of Prussia. In many ways, its power, wealth, importance in the international political arena was laid by the Teutons. Russian Russian soldier’s fine training, which was admired including Russian emperors, was inherited from the knight Teuton. The Teutonic order of chivalry still exists. Now members of the order have found their vocation in charity, the study of their own history. The residence of the Grand master is in Vienna. The symbolism of the order remained the same: a black cross on a white field. This is how she is depicted on red Lion hoodies: men’s sweatshirt “Teuton black” and men’s sweatshirt “Teuton white”.